WHQR Public Radio in Wilmington, NC featured four interviewees from the 1997 NC Fisheries Reform Act: An Oral History Perspective project on CoastLine, a call-in news program.
Discussions of Science, Policy and Politics : A project of the Coastal and Ocean Policy program at the University of North Carolina Wilmington.
In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the NC Fisheries reform Act of 1997, several scientists and commercial fishing representatives joined together to provide an oral history of the act including, its passage and locals' experiences.
The research team conducted 13 oral history interviews, created 3 podcasts, and developed a discussion guide suitable for use in classrooms and public forums.
During the Spring 2017 term, the MCOP capstone class participated in the researchers' introduction of their podcast to elicit feedback and students had the opportunity to discuss the material with project leads.
The podcast was very cool and very well done! Definitely worth a listen.
You can find more information on the project and the full podcast at Raising the Story.com
(From http://thehaintblue.blogspot.com/2017/04/the-1997-nc-fisheries-reform-act-oral.html )
Susan West will talk about the Coastal Voices oral history project at the Friends of the Outer Banks History Center Annual Meeting on Thursday, April 27th, at 6:00 pm. For more information, call the Outer Banks History Center at 252-473-2655.
The first episode of Lo & Behold: The Fisheries Reform Act, a podcast by Bit & Grain, is now available at bitandgrain.com.
The podcast is based on 13 oral history interviews conducted with fishermen, scientists, environmental advocates and resource managers involved in creating and implementing the 1997 N.C. Fisheries Reform Act. The comprehensive oral history project was made possible by the Community Collaborative Research Grant, a program supported by North Carolina Sea Grant in partnership with the William R. Kenan Jr. Institute for Engineering, Technology and Science based at North Carolina State University.
Project coordinator, Susan West, notes that opportunities to record and document the experiences of those involved are fading as this year marks the 20th anniversary of the original act. “Through collaboration, we were able to produce a multidimensional record of these voices that can be readily accessed by the public,” she explains.
“I think the most important aspect was the mechanism of developing a fisheries management plan for each of the major species. Now, that’s not as easy as it sounds, of course, and no species stands on its own,” Dr. B. J. Copeland, retired North Carolina State University professor of Zoology and Marine Sciences, told oral historian Mary Williford last June.
Copeland was talking about the 1997 North Carolina Fisheries Reform Act, the most significant fisheries legislation in state history, and the three years of research, meetings, outreach, and negotiation that preceded passage of the act. In 1994, the General Assembly had approved a moratorium on the sale of new commercial fishing licenses and established a 19-member committee to oversee study of the state's coastal fisheries management process and recommend changes to improve the process.
Copeland was the executive director of North Carolina Sea Grant during that period and served on the study committee. The committee reviewed fishing licenses, fishing gears, habitat protection, regulatory agency organization, and law enforcement, and developed recommendations to improve the coastal fisheries management process. Those recommendations formed the basis for the Reform Act.
Altogether, Williford and other oral historians interviewed thirteen people for the 1997 NC Fisheries Reform Act: An Oral History Perspective project. Interviewees were fishermen, scientists, resource managers, elected officials, and environmental advocates instrumental in developing and implementing the legislation.
Read more at the Albemarle-Pamlico National Estuary Partnership’s Sound Reflections.
Outer Banks storytelling traditions and digital technology have joined together in Coastal Voices: Linking Generations, a collaborative project that has transformed access to interviews with Hatteras and Ocracoke residents.
Linking Generations is an online collection of 49 oral history interviews conducted between 1978 and 2004 for the Southern Oral History and the National Park Service Cape Hatteras National Seashore Ethnohistory Project. The exhibit includes audio recordings and written transcriptions.
Coastal Voices, a regional oral history program of the Core Sound Waterfowl Museum and Heritage Center, provided digitization of the interview recordings on loan from the Outer Banks History Center and developed the online exhibit. The Outer Banks Community Foundation funded the project.
The transcriptions are popular with researchers interested in specific places, people or events described in the interviews, but the voice inflections and pauses heard in the recordings convey emotion and meaning. Listeners also hear local dialects that have largely disappeared.
Linking Generations is a rich source of first-hand accounts of events and experiences that aren’t recorded in official documents. Narrators tell their stories in their own words, generously sharing deeply personal accounts that build a powerful picture of community life, as evident in the following edited interview excerpts.
Margaret Willis, Frisco:
“My dad sent us upstairs with my mom. And then the sound tide started coming. And it got so bad that the waves were breaking on the back of our house and spattering in the upstairs window. It washed everything out of the house. And Ronald Stowe’s party boat went through our yard. Looking out the window, you couldn’t see anything but water. I was so scared, I thought we had washed out into the sound. Our house washed off its blocks and the Red Cross came and put it back for us.”
David “Lance” Midgett, Waves:
“In the old days, the doctor would come down from Manteo. He’d fly down. There was an old landing strip and cow pen between here and Salvo. The cow pen had fifteen cows. It was fenced off on three sides and then the water. The piper cub landed in that. The pilot stayed to keep the cows from licking it to death while the doctor made calls.”
Gibb Gray, Avon:
“I saw one big explosion in the middle of the night. The house shook bad and my dad said a ship had been hit. I could see the red glow. We learned later it was the City of Atlanta. Another time the school got lashed with another violent explosion and looking down towards the lighthouse, we saw the smoke, the black smoke boiling up. That was the Dixie Arrow. It was an exciting time that happened all of a sudden, with the war right at our doorstep. The Army cavalry on horses was here for patrol duty between the stations. That was the last time the cavalry horses were used. They’d come on train from Little Washington and they’d put the horses on a barge when they got to the Pamlico.”
Douglas “Chubby” Dorris, Frisco:
“One thing that sticks out in my mind was Monday, regardless of the weather, was always wash day and bean day. Grandmamma didn’t have the scrub board no more, she had the wringer washing machine. That wasn’t only at our house, that was the whole neighborhood. Monday was washday, it was like a tradition. You didn’t do nothing on Sunday. If you wanted a blouse or a shirt ironed, you better have it done Saturday. Granddaddy hardly ever raised his voice, but he’d better not catch you plugging the iron in on a Sunday and he wasn’t a real religious, church-going man. Now you couldn’t plug the iron in, but he always had a poker game every Sunday afternoon at his fish camp where he kept his nets stored.”
Lucy Stowe, Hatteras:
“Instead of getting to Atlanta, Georgia, they put me right on the weather station here at Hatteras. Gave me about a week’s training. This is a thermometer and that’s a barometer and this is a barograph. The next year we put in pilot balloons that we tracked with a theodolite, getting wind direction and velocity aloft. Then maybe the next year they put in the radiosonde. Then after World War II when radar became available, that really changed the ways of reporting weather.”
Elizabeth O’Neal Howard, Ocracoke:
“My grandfather was an old sea captain. He was in Charleston, South Carolina, in the very beginning of the Civil War and he decided that he was going to make a run for it. The port captain told him that he didn’t have a chance, that he’d never make it. But he got on the boat and snuck out of Charleston during the heaviest of the bombardment. Came to this inlet and went on up to the Roanoke River and sunk the boat. Only the top of the mast was sticking out, and he took the sails ashore and buried them. He said no damn Yankee was going to get that boat. Then he came home and the boat rested there until the Civil War was over. Then he took barrels and pontooned it. I guess that’s the right word, but that’s how he got it out.”
From Coast OBX.com, by Susan West, contributing writer
Ephraim “Eph” O’Neal was a true Hatterasman –a scholar of the sea, humble about his accomplishments, and fiercely proud of his family and his hometown.
“I’ve never been one to place much stock in medals or awards or citations,” Eph said in 2005 after he received a package in the mail that contained his Bronze Star, earned in recognition of his heroic deeds as an infantryman at Anzio Beach in Italy during World War II.
“I knew that it said on my discharge papers that I was to receive the medal, but I never thought too much about it. I guess I was in too much of a hurry to get back to Hatteras and go fishing again,” he explained.
His young wife, Daisy Stowe O’Neal, was also anxious to return to the village where she had been born. The couple had married in 1944, and Daisy had joined Eph in Biloxi, Mississippi when he returned to the states.
Born in Hatteras village in 1920, Eph was just nine years old when he started gill-netting in the mornings before school. He also worked at one of the fish houses in the village, unloading fish from fishing boats and packing the catch for transport to Elizabeth City, North Carolina on one of the freight boats running out of the village.
Before long, he captained his own boat, a 17 feet long sailboat, fishing for mullet, trout and drum. His formal education came to an end when he was in the ninth grade at the village school and decided he could learn most of what he needed to know plying the waters of Pamlico Sound.
“There’s never been a better place to live and we fared pretty well. We had fish, clams, oysters, and sea turtles that we ate. We had three meals a day and clothes to keep us warm, but we didn’t have money,” Eph said, reflecting on life on the island during the Great Depression.
In addition to gill-netting, Eph pound-netted, haul-seined, oystered, crab-potted and ran charter-fishing trips during his career as a fisherman.
In the early 1970s, sensing that Hatteras Island’s growing popularity with tourists offered a way to bolster his reliance on fishing with other ventures, he opened two marinas, a campground and a motel, either alone or in partnerships. It was around that time that he also became a Dare County magistrate, a position he held for thirty years.
“I had had two years of bad fishing and that’s when I decided to build Village Marina,” Eph said. “But I still fished a little then and I packed fish there in the winter after the tourist season ended each year.”
O’Neal then placed more chips on his faith in the future of the island’s commercial fishing industry and built a fish house on the harbor in the village. Cape Hatteras Seafood flourished with more than twenty boats unloading there. Most were drop-netting boats fishing for croakers, trout and bluefish in the winter but some Core Sound trawlers also used the facility.
When new state and federal fishing regulations began to rapidly multiply, swamping the business with a flood of paperwork, aggravation and reduced profits, Eph closed the fish house.
But he continued to fish and crab and oyster, and continued to advocate for the village’s commercial fishing industry. For many years, he showed visitors how to build a fishing net at the Day at the Docks celebration and participated in the annual Blessing of the Fleet.
“My grandfather taught us the importance of seeing what you can make of life, of not stopping when you’ve accomplished a goal but of using that experience as a stepping stone in finding your purpose,” said Natasha Farrow, Eph’s granddaughter.
(Editor's note: Hatteras Island writer and historian, Susan West remembers Ephraim “Eph” O'Neal who died on February 17, 2017.) (From The Island Free Press.)
Barbara Garrity-Blake introduced the 1997 NC Fisheries Reform Act: An Oral History Perspective project to University of North Carolina - Wilmington Coastal and Ocean Policy graduate students Thursday evening. Also attending were Dr. B.J. Copeland, Pam Davis Morris and Jess Hawkins who were interviewed for the project in 2016.
Recordings, transcripts and audio excerpts of thirteen oral history interviews conducted with individuals instrumental in crafting and implementing the 1997 NC Fisheries Reform Act are now available in a Coastal Voices exhibit.
Coastal Voices is an oral history project about the maritime heritage of the Outer Banks and Down East region of North Carolina.
Oral historians Barbara Garrity-Blake and Mary Williford interviewed Governor Beverly Perdue who was NC Senate Appropriations Committee co-chair when the Fisheries Reform Act was making its way through the NC General Assembly.
The thirteen interviews conducted for the 1997 NC Fisheries Reform Act: An Oral History Perspective are now available on NOAA's Voices from the Fisheries website.
The collection will be featured in a multimedia exhibit later this year.
The Voices from the Fisheries Database is a central repository for consolidating, archiving, and disseminating oral history interviews related to commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing in the United States and its territories. Oral history interviews are a powerful way to document the human experience with our marine, coastal, and Great Lakes environments and our living marine resources. Each story archived here provides a unique example of this connection collected from fishermen, their spouses, processing workers, shoreside business workers and operators, recreational and subsistence fishermen, scientists, marine resources managers, and others --all among NOAA's fishery stakeholders.
Dr. B.J. Copeland was interviewed by Mary Williford for the project. (Photo by Mary Williford.)
Interested in marine fisheries management? Enjoy listening to first-hand accounts of how public policy is made? Curious about how oral history can help bring scholarship into the public square?
You are invited to attend a special preview airing of a new podcast exploring the NC Fisheries Reform Act.
The podcast features the voices of fishermen, scientists, environmental advocates and resource managers instrumental in crafting and implementing the 1997 Act that brought far-reaching change to the way NC manages coastal fisheries. It is one of a three-part series based on thirteen oral history interviews conducted last year as part of the 1997 NC Fisheries Reform Act: An Oral History Perspective project funded by the North Carolina Sea Grant Community Collaborative Research Program.
A guided discussion with project developers and narrators will follow the airing.
Three podcast previews will be held:
Wednesday, February 22, 2 to 3 p.m., in Newport, NC
Wednesday, March 1, 6:30 to 7:30 p.m., in Wanchese, NC
Tuesday, March 7, 12:30 to 1:30 p.m., in Raleigh, NC
The event is free but pre-registration is required, as space is limited.
Please contact Susan West (email@example.com, 252-995-4131) for more information or to register.
Though commercial fishing is an uncertain bet, a new generation of Hatteras watermen is willing to take the chance.
The headlines tell the story of an American industry on the brink. Pounded by tightening regulations, escalating expenses, stagnant or declining fish prices and shrinking working waterfronts, the future of commercial fishing seems caught in a seismic wave of uncertainty.
Yet even as old fishermen lament the passing of the industry they have known and loved, a new generation of commercial fishermen has emerged in places like Hatteras Island.
These younger men aren’t afraid to lock horns with the future. They adopt innovative ways to run businesses that provide fresh, wild-caught seafood, and they scale their operations to meet regulatory, environmental and economic challenges.
Jeremy O’Neal is 28 years old and the father of two little girls. He started fishing shortly after graduating from Cape Hatteras Secondary School; he was offered a job as mate on the Miss Megan, a gill net boat working out of Hatteras village.
Last year O’Neal bought his own boat, the Goose, a 25-foot Downeaster that he uses to net Spanish mackerel, bluefish, dogfish, king mackerel, croaker and sea mullet in the Atlantic and in Pamlico Sound.
Read the rest of the story in Outer Banks Magazine.
Few women in North Carolina set their sights on fishing for a living.
Current statistics show only 5.5 percent of the 5,449 commercial fishing license holders in the state are women. That rate varied little over the past decade, according to the N.C. Division of Marine Fisheries. Anecdotal evidence also indicates that female deck hands, much less captains, are rare.
Women working in commercial fishing, however, see few obstacles unique to their gender. They say they face the same challenges as their male counterparts — long hours, hard work, rough seas, mechanical problems and fluctuating catches.
“Commercial fishing is punishing and dangerous work, and many ‘greenhorns’ — men or women — quit after the first trip,” notes Sara Mirabilio, a North Carolina Sea Grant fisheries specialist.
“But if a woman proves herself not weak of spirit and a quick learner, she will be accepted. I don’t think there’s gender inequality.”
Yet women’s varied roles may not be as visible. Along the North Carolina coast and beyond, women have a tradition of working in the commercial fishing industry — hanging nets, picking crabs, shucking scallops, building pots, selling fish, attending fishery management meetings, and working nets and lines.
“Fishing is often seen as a male activity, but the paid and unpaid labor of women that goes toward sustaining fisheries and fishing communities often is not recognized,” Mirabilio adds.
Some women working in the industry come from generations of fishing families, while others are newcomers. Take some time to meet a few who work the waters for a living.
• CAPTAIN’S CHALLENGES
Shannon Dunn skippers her family’s 32-foot fishing boat from a creek-side berth in Hatteras Village to offshore fishing grounds in search of Spanish mackerel, king mackerel and other fish.
Read the rest of the story in Coastwatch, a NC Sea Grant publication.
North Carolina’s commercial fishing industry is shrinking, and cheaper imported seafood is becoming increasingly common. That’s true not only in our restaurants, even at the coast, but at big seafood festivals originally designed to promote the local catch. However, at one relatively small Carteret County annual gathering, ALL the seafood is wild caught.
The 1997 NC Fisheries Reform Act project consists of thirteen oral history interviews conducted with fishermen, scientists, advocates, and resource managers instrumental in crafting and implementing the Reform Act, the most significant fisheries legislation in North Carolina history. The interviews will be available online and form the basis for a series of podcasts currently under production. Garrity-Blake and West conducted interviews and West serves as project manager, working with a team of collaborators fluent in coastal ecosystems, archival science, and audio podcasting. The project is funded by the North Carolina Sea Grant Community Collaborative Research Grant Program.
Garrity-Blake and West are working with residents of Avon, North Carolina who are conducting oral history interviews with individuals who lived in Kinnakeet (Avon) village in the 1930s, when Stanley E. Green was principal and teacher at the village school. In 1971, Green wrote about his years living in Avon in a book called Kinnakeet Adventure. The interviews are posted in a collection on the Coastal Voices website.
Port Light captures the rich history of the trade, civic, and kin connections that extended across the sounds of North Carolina from the Outer Banks to mainland ports. The project traces historical connections from the Outer Banks communities of Dare, Hyde and Carteret counties to mainland port towns during the early 1900s, when boats were the primary mode of transportation. Through audio excerpts, photographs, and written word, the story of boat transportation and the economic and cultural connections relations between barrier island communities and mainland ports is interpreted. Garrity-Blake and West conducted oral history interviews and researched existing interviews and other material for Port Light. A project of the Core Sound Waterfowl Museum and Heritage Center, the project was funded by the National Maritime Heritage Grant Program.